Part Ⅰ Listening Comprehension
Directions：In this section you will hear five passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear three questions about the passage. The question will be spoken only once. After you hear the question, read the four possible answers marked A，B，C and D. Choose the best answer and mark the letter of your choice on the ANSWER SHEET.
To remain fit and healthy, you need a balanced diet including essential vitamins and minerals. But what if your diet consists mainly of staples like rice, bread, or corn because other foods are not available or affordable? If so, you will likely develop "hidden hunger," a deficiency in essential micronutrients.
Although often invisible, hidden hunger negatively impacts health and development, and ultimately, economic well-being. About one-third of the world's population suffers from hidden hunger, mostly in developing countries. This is more than the population of Europe, the America, and Australia combined.
Hidden hunger's impact starts early, Nutritional deficiencies during the first 1,000 days, between the start of a mother's pregnancy and the child's second birthday, impede the child's ability to properly grow, learn, and ultimately reach his or her full potential. It can be devastating for long-term health, and ultimately, society's growth and prosperity.
Questions number 16~18 are based on the passage you've just heard.
Question number 16: What is the passage mainly about?
Question number 17: Where is hidden hunger most serious in the world?
Question number 18: What is the effect of hidden hunger on a child?
Katherine Stothard and colleagues from Britain's Newcastle University combined data from 18 studies to look at the risk of abnormalities of babies whose mothers were obese or overweight. The study found obese women were nearly twice as likely to have a baby with neural tube defects, which are caused by the incomplete development of the brain or spinal cord. For one such defect, spina bifida, the risk more than doubled. The researchers also detected increased chances of heart defect, cleft lip and palate, water on the brain and problems in the growth of arms and legs.
The World Health Organization classifies around 400 million people around the world as obese, including 20 million under the age of five, and the number is growing. Obesity raises the risks of diseases such as type 2 diabetes, heart problems and is a health concern piling pressure on already overburdened national health system.
Questions number 19~21 are based on the passage you've just heard.
Question number 19: What is the main topic of the passage?
Question number 20: What can we learn about the birth defects in the talk?
Question number 21: According to WHO, how many people are classified as obese around the world?
About 10 million people in the US alone are suffering from impairing noise-induced hearing loss. The rising trend is something that researchers and physicians at the University of Michigan Kresge Hearing Research Institute are hoping to reverse, with a cocktail of vitamins and the mineral magnesium that has shown promise as a possible way to prevent hearing loss caused by loud noise. The nutrients were successful in laboratory tests, and now researchers are testing whether humans will benefit as well. The combination of vitamins A，C and E，plus magnesium, is given on pill form to patients who are participating in the research. The medication, called AuraQuell, is designed to be taken before a person is exposed to loud noise. The preclinical translational research that led to the formulation of AuraQuell as an effective preventive was funded by General Motors and the United Auto Workers.
Questions number 22~24 are based on the passage you've just heard.
Question number 22: What is the passage mainly concerned about?
Question number 23: What did Kresge Hearing Research Institute develop to prevent hearing loss?
Question number 24: Who, according to the speaker, would benefit from the formulation of AuraQuell?
The main challenges in residency come down to the increased responsibility. Real patients and the attendings are fully counting on you. As a medical student, you're primarily there in the hospital to learn and you had the resident above you, who was actually responsible for the patient. If you make a mistake or don't know the answer, it isn't that big of a deal. But as a resident, you're there to work, with learning being a secondary objective. You are the primary doctor caring for the patient and sometimes that's scary. And if you don't keep on top of your study and medical knowledge, you will be doing a significant disservice to your patients. Your increased responsibility also translates to many more nights on call, which means even more sleep deprivation than when you were a medical student. Increased responsibility also often translates to being the last one to leave.
Questions number 25~27 are based on the passage you've just heard.
Question number 25: What is the main idea of the passage?
Question number 26: Which of the following can be true of a resident?
Question number 27: According to the speaker, what does the increased responsibility mean to a resident?
I really want all of you patients to form partnerships with your physician. This partnership requires that we think because the physician and the patient are both after the same thing and that's the truth. As physicians, we get information by listening, asking questions, observing through examinations, and touch and then we think. I heed the words of my mentor long ago who told me all of the information that you need will be there if you let the patient talk and you listen.
If you can speak with your physician easily about the simple thing, then it'll be so much better. When you come to the hard things, serious illness, addiction and end-of-life discussion, ask questions and get answers and make sure the discussion is not in the big-word, top-secret language that we learned in medical school. Make sure that you understand before making decisions.
Questions number 28~30 are based on the passage you've just heard.
Question number 28: What does the speaker intend to do in the passage?
Question number 29: What happens if you let the patient talk and you listen according to the speaker?
Question number 30: What does the speaker suggest that patient-physician communication avoid?
This is the end of listening comprehension.