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2021年考研英语一翻译题真题及答案

责编:胡陆 2021-06-17

2021年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(一)考试时间安排在12月26日下午14:00-15:00,考试时长为3个小时。考后大家最为关心的就是本次的考试真题及考后答案,小编在考后为大家及时跟进考研英语一真题,请大家先收藏好此页面。以下是2021年考研英语一小作文试题及答案。

Section III Translation

Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

World war was the watershed event for higher education in modern Western societies(46)Those societies came out of the war with levels of enrollment that had been roughly constant at 3-5% of the relevant age groups during the decades before the war. But after the war, great social and political changes arising out of the successful war against Fascism created a growing demand in European and American economies for increasing numbers of graduates with more than a secondary school education.(47)And the demand that rose in those societies for entry to higher education extended to groups and social classes that had not thought of attending a university before the war. These demands resulted in a very rapid expansion of the systems of higher education, beginning in the 1960s and developing very rapidly (though unevenly) during the 1970s and 1980s.

The growth of higher education manifests itself in at least three quite different ways, and these in turn have given rise to different sets of problems. There was first the rate of growth:(48)in many counties of Western Europe, the numbers of students in higher education doubled within five-year periods during the 1960s and doubled again in seven, eight or 10 years by the middle of the 1970s. Second growth obviously affected the absolute size both of systems and individual institutions. And third growth was reflected in changes in the proportion of the relevant age group enrolled in institutions of higher education.

Each of these manifestations of growth carried its own peculiar problems in its wake/ For example, a high growth rate placed great strains on the existing structures of governance, of administration, and above all of socialization. When a faculty or department grows from, say, five to 20 members within three or four years,(49)and when the new staff predominantly young men and women fresh from postgraduate study, they largely define the norms of academic life in that faculty. And if the postgraduate student population also grows rapidly and there is loss of a close apprenticeship relationship between faculty members and students, the student culture becomes the chief socializing force for new postgraduate students, with consequences for the intellectual and academic life of the institution-this was seen in America as well as in France, Italy, West Germany, and Japan.(50)High growth rates increased the chances for academic innovation, they also weakened the forms and processes by which teachers and students are admitted into a community of scholars during periods of stability or slow growth. In the 1960s and 1970s,

European universities saw marked changes in their governance arrangements, with empowerment of junior faculty and to some degree of students as well.

46.【题干】Those societies came out of the war with levels of enrollment that had been roughly constant at 3-5% of the relevant age groups during the decades before the war.

【答案】战争结束后,一些社会随之出现了。这些社会的入学率在战前的几十年里一直保持在相关年龄段的3%-5%。

47.【题干】And the demand that rose in those societies for entry to higher education extended to groups and social classes that had not thought of attending a university before the war.

【答案】在那些社会中,人们渴望接受到更高等的教育。这个需求延伸到了战前那些没有想过上大学的群体和社会阶层中。

48.【题干】in many counties of Western Europe, the numbers of students in higher education doubled within five-year periods during the 1960s and doubled again in seven, eight or 10 years by the middle of the 1970s.

【答案】在西欧的许多国家,20世纪60年代,接受高等教育的学生人数在五年内翻了一番,到70年代中期,在七年,八年或十年里又翻了一番。

49.【题干】and when the new staff predominantly young men and women fresh from postgraduate study, they largely define the norms of academic life in that faculty.

【答案】当新员工主要是刚毕业的年轻男女时,他们很大程度上定义了该学院学术生活的规范。

50.【题干】High growth rates increased the chances for academic innovation, they also weakened the forms and processes by which teachers and students are admitted into a community of scholars during periods of stability or slow growth.

【答案】高增长率增加了学术创新的机会,同时也削弱了教师和学生在稳定或缓慢的成长过程中,被认可为学者这群体的形式和过程。

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